
Mathematical "P" Words palindrome
A number or word that reads the same
way from right to left as it does left to right.
parabola
The conic section formed by a plane parallel to an edge of the conical
surface. paragraph proof A form of written proof in which conclusions and justifications are combined in sentences and put into paragraph form. parallel
lines
Two lines in a plane are parallel if they have no points in common or
are identical.
parallelogram
A quadrilateral
with two pairs of parallel sides. Parallel
planes
Planes which have no points in common or are identical. parentheses ( ) Grouping symbols which indicate the order of operations that should be followed in evaluating an expression; the work inside them should be done first. pattern A general form for which there are many examples. pentagon
A fivesided
polygon. percent
% means times
1/100 or .01, one onehundredth.
perimeter The sum of the lengths of the sides of a polygon.... or the length of the boundary of a closed region. perimeter of a polygon The sum of the lengths of its sides. perimeter
of a rectangle
2l + 2w where l is the length
and w is the width of a rectangle. permutation
an ordered arrangement of a set of objects. YXZ ZXY perpendicular
The name
given to rays, segments, or lines that form right angles. perpendicular
bisector method
A method for finding the center of a circle that involves drawing perpendicular
bisectors of two chords. You can use this method to perform the really
cool trick of drawing a circle through any three noncolinear points. perpendicular bisector of a segment In a plane, the line containing the midpoint of the segment and perpendicular to the segment. perpendicular
planes
Planes whose dihedral angle is a right angle. perspective
drawing
A drawing of a figure made to look as it would in the real world. To achieve
this illusion receding parallel lines are drawn to converge at a point
on the horizon called the vanishing point. pi Every circle, big or small, has a special relationship between its circumference and its diameter. If you divide the circumference by the diameter you always get the same number! C/D is always approximately 3.1415926535 ... . Pi is an irrational number. That means that it is a decimal that never repeats or terminates. It CAN NOT be written as a fraction exactly. The Greeks who first found this relationship used the Greek letter to stand for the decimal and we are still using it today. pie
graph A
graph in which information is represented using a circle that has been
cut into sectors to show values of a particular category. Also called
circle graph. pint A unit of capacity in the U.S system of measurements equal to two cups, or 1/2 a quart, or 16 ounces, or 0.473 liters. pixel A dot on a TV or computer screen or other monitor. place
value
The numbers that each digit stands for in a decimal. plane An undefined geometric term. In Euclidean Geometry, a plane is understood to be a flat surface that extends infinitely in all directions.. plane coordinate geometry The study of points as ordered pairs of numbers. plane figure A set of points that are all in one plane. plane geometry The study of figures which lie in the same plane. plane section The intersection of a threedimensional figure with a plane. point An undefined geometric term. In Euclidean Geometry, a point can be thought of as a dot that represents a location on a plane or in space. These points have no size. point of
tangency The
point at which a tangent intersects the curve (circle) or curved surface
(sphere). polygon A union of three or more coplanar
segments (its sides) such that each segment intersects exactly two others,
one at each of its endpoints (its vertices). polygonal region The union of a polygon and its interior. polyhedron
A threedimensional surface which is the union of polygonal regions (its
faces) and which has no holes. Plural: polyhedra. polynomial A monomial or a sum of any number of monomials. An expression that is the sum or difference of two or more terms.
positive integer Any one of the numbers 1, 2, 3, ... . Also called natural numbers. Remember that 0 is neither positive nor is it negative. postulate A statement assumed to be true. Also called axiom. pound (lb.) A unit of weight in the U.S. system of measurement equal to 16 ounces. 1 pound0.4536 kilograms. power The answer to a problem . In this power, "a" is called the base and "b" is called the exponent. ppm
Parts per million. This unit is frequently used
in reporting the concentration of pollutants in water and air. It means
that in a mixture, there is 1 part by mass of the subject material in
1 million parts of the mixture. Thus in water, 1 PPM corresponds to 1
g of pollutant per million g of water, preimage The original figure in a transformation. preimage point A point to which a transformation has been applied. preserved property Under a transformation, a property which, if present in a preimage, is present in the image. prime number A positive integer whose only positive integer divisors are itself and one.
prism
To create a prism, start with a polygon base, then translate this base
to a parallel plane, then connect the corresponding vertices of the two
bases. probability A number from 0 to 1 which indicates how likely something is to happen. A probability of 0 means the event cannot happen. A probability of 1 means it will definitely happen. A probability of 0.5 means you have a 50% chance of it happening. product The resulting of doing a multiplication. Product of Reciprocals Property For any nonzero number n: n times 1/n = 1. proof A sequence of justified conclusions, leading from what is given or known to a final conclusion. Property of Opposites For any number n: n + n = 0. Opposites always add to zero. proportion
A statement
that two fractions (ratios) are equal.
proportional numbers Four numbers that form a true proportion. proportional thinking The ability to get or estimate an answer to a proportion without going through the equationsolving process. protractor A instrument used for measuring angles. Click the word to get some disposable protractors. pyramid
A polyhedron in which all but one of the polygonal faces intersect at
a single point known as the vertex of the pyramid. The side which
does not intersect at the vertex is called the "base". Pythagorean
theorem
In a right triangle with legs a and b, and hypotenuse. Pythagorean triple A set of three numbers that can be the lengths of the sides of a right triangle.
