Mathematical "N" Words
one of the numbers 1, 2, 3, ... . Also called positive integer.
These are sometimes called "counting numbers".
A figure has n-fold rotation symmetry, where n is a positive integer,
when a rotation of magnitude 360/n maps the figure onto itself,
and no larger value of n has this property.
||*n also represents
the number of times the figure would need to be rotated onto intself
in order to land directly in its original position. In the triangle
example at left, the 3 fold rotation means that 3 rotations of 120
degrees will land point G on top of itself.
A polygon with
of a statement A
statement (called not p, and represented by ~p)
that is true whenever statement p is false and is false whenever statement
p is true.
EX: let p = "It
is raining today." The negation of p would be, "It is not
Any one of the numbers -1, -2, -3, ... .
A number which is the opposite of a positive number.
Parentheses which are inside other parentheses. Nested parentheses indicate
which operations are to be performed first. You always work inside the
INNERMOST parentheses first.
EX: (3(4+8)) means
add the four and the eight first, then multiply by 3. The simplified
answer is 36.
A two-dimensional figure that can be folded on its segments or curved
on its boundaries into a three-dimensional surface.
A union of points (its vertices or nodes) and segments (its
arcs) connecting them. Also called graph.
An endpoint of an arc in a network.
A nine-sided polygon.
A set in which at least one segment that connects points within the set
has points that lie outside of the set.
||Here we see
the segment that connects pts. A and C contains points which fall
outside of the quadrilateral.
geometry in which the postulates are not the same as those in Euclidean
Regions that do not share interior points.
The set with no elements. Also called empty set.
Either of the following symbols can be used to represent the null set.
A line in which the points, in order, correspond to numbers in order.
a in the fraction a/b. Remember that a fraction
is a division problem. The top number, the numerator, is the number
being divided, the fraction bar is the division symbol, and the bottom
number, the denominator, is the number of equal parts that you are dividing
the top into.
EX: Say you have $24/8.
Twenty four dollars divided into 8 equal parts means there will be $3
in each part.
EX: If the fraction
has a numerator smaller than its denominator you might get a problem
like this: $3/4. Three dollars divided into 4 equal parts. Well each
of these parts will have less than one dollar in it, in this case $.75.
*If the numerator
is greater than the denominator, the fraction is > 1.
**If the numerator is less than the denominator, the fraction
is < 1.
A collection of numbers and operation symbols, without an equal sign,
that represents a number.
is a numerical expression
that represents the number 33, because the order of operations requires
us to first take (10-5), and get 5, then multiply that by 6 and get
30, and finally add 3 for a total of 33.
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